Sermon: In the Beginning

Liturgy: Genesis 1:1-2:3 & John 1:1-18

Date: January 9, 2022

Preacher: Lon Kuehn

            בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. – Genesis 1:1

The creation. The mystery surrounding this event beckons us to know just who the Creator is, and what the purpose of the creation is. The creation account is theocentric, meaning God is the central focus, not creature centered. Its purpose is to glorify the Creator by magnifying him through the majesty of the created order. Bible commentary tells us that these passages are doxological (an expression of praise to God) as well as didactic (intended to teach), hymnic (having the characteristics of a hymn) as well as history. “God,” Elohim, is the grammatical subject of the first sentence (1:1) and continues as the thematic subject throughout the account. “And God said” is the recurring element that gives 1:1–2:3 cohesion as he is the primary actor. For this reason, one could use as the title of this first section the affirmation of the Apostles’ Creed, “God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth.”[1]

One thing we must make perfectly clear, many people spend years reading and rereading the Bible to see where they fit in, where they appear in the scriptures. We were never meant to find ourselves in the Bible, it’s not about us at all. This book is God’s story, it is his revelation of himself to us. He’s telling us about himself, so we may use the free will he gave each of us to seek him. God never created us to simply offer him praise and adoration, which is his perfect right. As our Creator, we owe him everything we have. No, God gave us free will to seek him. But, more on that later.

Today’s first reading was Genesis 1:1-2:3, which Bible scholars show to be a symmetric, cohesive unit which consists of an introduction which identifies the Creator and creation (1:1-2), and continues with seven paragraphs, six of which cover the six creation days (1:3-31); and the last paragraph encompasses the seventh day, or day of consecration (2:1-3). Each creation day mostly follows a set order: (1) “God said,” (2) command given, (3) the fact of creation, (4) God’s evaluation, (5) the boundaries of the created element, and (6) the naming. This pattern shows us that creation wasn’t a series of random events that “happened” to occur resulting in humans appearing from some random chain of evolution. Rather, that creation was shaped by a supreme Overseer for a specific purpose.

 This opening section of Genesis stands outside the main frame of the book set by the ten headings, ‘This is the account of’ beginning in 2:4, and so on. This shows us that this passage is a prologue to the rest of the book, setting out who God is and how he relates to the world. This provides us a key of how to interpret Genesis, if not the whole Bible. But this prologue is much more than a statement of theology, it is a hymn of praise to the Creator through whom and for whom all things exist.

The prologue itself is carefully arranged. Ten divine commands result in eight acts of creation spread over six days, so that there is a correspondence between days one to three and days four to six. On day one, God created ‘light’ and on day four, created the ‘lights’ (sun, moon and stars); on day two, he created the sky and sea and on day five, he created those species that dwell in the sky and sea (birds and fish); on day three, he created the land and vegetation and on day six, the dwellers in the land (animals and mankind), giving them plants to eat; finally, on the seventh day (the Sabbath), he rested.

The works of creation climb towards a pinnacle on day six when mankind was created. We can see that mankind was the crowning feat of God’s creation because it is emphasized by not only mankind’s creation, but the role humans are to play in God’s creation (1:26–29), which is a much fuller account than those about any other creature. The works of the five preceding days seem to focus on creating a home for mankind. The aspects of creation that most affect human existence (e.g. plant and animal life and the sun and moon) are described more fully than the creation of light, land, or seas, which are less significant. God’s concern for humanity is made explicit in the provision of plants for food.

It also seems likely that the emphasis on God creating for six days and then resting on the seventh is deliberate. God’s mode of working was to be a model for human activity. People, who are made in the image of God, are expected throughout the Bible to imitate God. So, as God worked for six days and then rested on the seventh day, human beings are to work for six days and rest on the seventh (Ex. 20:8–11).[2]

So, let’s now begin our journey through the seven days of the Creation recorded by Moses, as told to him by God, to create a record of God’s revelation of himself to mankind.

The First Day (1:1-5): In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

In the beginning is a statement that locates the creation of space, matter, and time when God, including the person of the Son of God, already was (John 1:1–3; 17:5, 24). The Trinity have always “been”, in prefect present tense, as God told Moses, “I Am.” They have been in perfect unity, love, and harmony. There was never a, what we refer to as time, without them. They have so much love in their own company, that they wished to share that love with others, so they created what we read in the Bible.

The earth is described as without form and void, it was lifeless, and uninhabitable. It was not something pre-existent, that God built upon, but the earth and the entire universe were created from God’s word. He spoke everything into existence. The darkness over the earth isn’t simply the absence of light, rather that was created by God too. The Latin term used is Creatio Ex Nihilo, which literally means “Created Out of Nothing.” We must try to understand that everything we know, and what we see, hear, taste, smell, and feel that surrounds us, preceded us, and will ever follow us, was created by God out of Absolute Nothingness, with just his words.

God said marks the power of God to simply speak things into existence (2 Cor. 4:6; Heb. 11:3; 2 Pet. 3:5). This phrase will be used ten times in the creation account (vv. 1:6, 9, 11, 14, 20, 24, 26, 28, 29). God said that light should come into being. Light precedes the creation of the sun and other heavenly luminaries. The source of the light is not stated, but elsewhere the Scriptures connect it with God himself in the person of the Word of God, Jesus (John 1:1–5). At the end of all things light will again be provided by God and the Lamb without need of the sun (Rev. 22:5).

Good is the judgment of God on his creation of light. This assessment will be repeated for other creations of God (vv. 10, 12, 18, 21, 25) until all of creation is deemed very good (v. 31). After creating light God separated it. This separation is another key aspect of God’s creative activity that will be repeated on days two and four (vv. 6–7, 14–18). Here the separation is between light and darkness. The narrative since 1:2 has been geocentric. The separation is implied as being between night and daytime. As the Creator, God has the right also to label his creation of darkness and light as day and night. The first day’s length is summarized by the statement there was evening and there was morning, perhaps better understood as ‘In summary, there was evening, then there was morning.’ The evening and morning are then said to make one day. In most versions this is translated the first day. However, the Hebrew text contains no definite article (‘the’), and the number is ‘one’, not ‘first’. The beginning of the day is reckoned from evening. This pattern would dictate the way sacred days were celebrated in Israel (Exod. 12:6; Lev. 23:5, 32; Neh. 13:19).[3]

A Second Day (1:6-8): And God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” So, God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. God called the dome Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

Since the basic description of the earth as it was originally created highlighted earth’s darkness and the deep, that is, the waters covering the earth, both needed additional creative acts. The darkness was complemented by light on day one. Now on the second day God divides the waters and creates the sky as one item that complements them.

Once again God labels what he has brought into being, calling the expanse sky (traditionally heavens). The formula for a day (evening and morning) is repeated and is followed by noting a second day. While this is traditionally called the second day, the Hebrew text contains no definite article here (the), nor for the third, fourth or fifth days. Once we get into translations way from the original Hebrew texts, we begin se the article added which appears in our Bible as “The Second Day.”

A Third Day (1:9–13): And God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let the earth put forth vegetation: plants yielding seed, and fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it.” And it was so. The earth brought forth vegetation: plants yielding seed of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.

God continues to work with the primeval seas on the third day. Here he orders the waters to part in order to form dry land. With this, the second and third days create items that contrast with the watery deep that was originally part of the earth. The seas are now distinct from both the sky created on the second day and the dry land created on the third day. The seas are now complemented by both sky and land, just as the light became the complement of darkness on day one. The third day also relates a second major work of God: the creation of plants.

Again, God’s creative acts are accomplished solely by his word. For the last time in the creation account God is said to name his creations: earth and seas. This first work on the third day is again called good.  God next creates vegetation which is classified into two types: plants that bear seeds, and trees (plants that bear fruit which contain seeds). Seed or descendant (when used of humans) is an important Hebrew term in Genesis, occurring sixty-five times. Almost one-quarter of the occurrences of the word for seed in the entire Old Testament, appears in Genesis. This term reveals God’s plan for the continued reproduction of life. The chronological summary formula is repeated again, noting a third day.

A Fourth Day (1:14–19): And God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years and let them be lights in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. God set them in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth, to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

This day God creates physical light sources (as opposed to the light source on day one). For the first time God’s creative word also notes the function that a part of his creation will serve as illumination for an observer having a terrestrial point of view, thereby continuing the geocentric perspective that was first introduced at 1:2. This mention of function already hints that God’s ultimate goal was the creation of humans.

The narrative for the fourth day has a strong anti-mythological, anti-polytheistic cast to it. The sun, moon and stars are creations of the one God, not gods to be worshipped, as by other religions. They are assigned functions by the one true God (Acts 14:15; 17:24), and therefore are not gods themselves.

We need to remember, that Genesis was written in the time of Moses hundreds of years after the actual creation. It’s intended audience was the Israelites, who lived at a time with numerous sects and religions following a plethora of gods. This account is the one true God setting the historical and theological record straight.

According to God’s own command, the lights in the sky were explicitly designed for three purposes. One was to distinguish day from night. The second was to serve as signs for the passage of time by marking seasons, days, and years. The third purpose was to provide light on earth.

These verses pay special attention to the two greater lights in the earth’s sky, with the stars mentioned only in passing. The text avoids the Hebrew words for sun and moon, since those words could signify the pagan deities associated with these light sources. The chronological summary formula is repeated again, noting a fourth day.

A Fifth Day (1:20–23): And God said, “Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the dome of the sky.” So, God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, of every kind, with which the waters swarm, and every winged bird of every kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

This day with the creation of the first animal life demonstrates God’s concern to fill the seas and the skies, the object of his attention on the second day. This life merits God’s first blessing. The life created on this day is distinct from the plant life created on the third day because it is described as living creatures, an expression that applies to all animal life. It is an important description of fish, birds, and beasts in this chapter (vv. 21, 24) and again in the account of the great flood in the time of Noah (9:10, 12, 15–16), more to come on this next week. The second use of the word created in chapter 1 highlights this new and important aspect of God’s creatures.

The verdict of God once again notes the goodness of his work. The Scriptures’ first blessing is for the fertility of these newly formed creatures so that they can fill the seas and multiply on earth. God’s blessing is not simply a wish, but it endows his creatures with the ability to do what the blessing states. The chronological summary formula is repeated again, documenting a fifth day.

The Sixth Day (1:24–31): And God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures of every kind: cattle and creeping things and wild animals of the earth of every kind.” And it was so. God made the wild animals of the earth of every kind, and the cattle of every kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground of every kind. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.” So, God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.” God said, “See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so. God saw everything that he had made, and indeed, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

Like the third day, the sixth day sees two creative acts, one pronounced good by God (v. 25), and the other very good (v. 31). Not only is the sixth day the climactic day of creation, but it also serves to draw two distinctions. One is the distinction between the living creatures created on this day and the previous day. This distinction is highlighted by humans alone being endowed with the image of God. A second distinction is between God and humans. The humans God creates possess his image, but they are not God—unlike God they are to multiply, and they also need God’s provision of food just as the living creatures do. God’s command to the earth to produce living creatures is parallel to his command on the third day that the earth produce plants (v. 11).

God’s use of the plural Let us … our imageour likeness has been the source of much discussion from earliest times and has generated a number of proposals as to its meaning. Among the more common theories is that God is including the angels or the heavenly court. However, humans are not depicted as sharing the angelic image anywhere in Scripture. Another theory is that this use of the plural depicts God’s majesty, though this is without grammatical support. Still another hypothesis is that the plural depicts God’s self-deliberation. However, this use cannot be demonstrated elsewhere in the Old Testament. Instead, the text clearly depicts God as an inward plurality and outwardly singular—our image … his image (vv. 26–27), and the mention of God’s Spirit at verse 2 supports this. While some early Christians took this as a reference to the Trinity, the concept of one God in three persons is only implicit here at best, and is revealed with fuller clarity only in the New Testament.

God’s expressed desire is to make man or better stated, humankind, since immediately God refers to humanity as them.They are to display God’s image in that they will rule the animals created on days five and six.

God’s image in humans is further defined as a likeness (see 5:1), indicating that in some respects humans are to be like God. The exact ways in which humans are to be like God are not defined, but later, Adam having a son in his likeness and image (5:3) implies that the image of God was marred by sin but in some sense remains part of every human (9:6; Jas 3:9). Incidentally, you may wonder where the name Adam came from? The Hebrew word for “man” is A-Dam. The threefold use of created emphasizes the high position for which God created humans. Twice they are said to be created in God’s image, and once that they were created male and female. This emphasizes that both men and women were the bearers of the image of God.

The second blessing given by God at creation is specifically for humans. It is twofold: the blessing of fertility and of dominion over the animals. Moreover, God provides for humans and animals through plants that are to serve as their food.

Finally, God judges his entire creation to be very good. With humans at the climax of his creation, this marks the completion of God’s work. The chronological summary formula is repeated once again, this time emphasizing the conclusion of all of God’s creative activity by featuring the first use of the definite article: the sixth day, or, more precisely, a day, the sixth one.

The Seventh Day (2:1–3): Thus, the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude. And on the seventh day God finished the work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all the work that he had done. So, God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all the work that he had done in creation.

While the accounts of the first six days follow similar patterns, the seventh day is unique. The uniqueness of the seventh day is that God did no new creative work. That cessation of work marked the holiness of this day and became a model for Israel’s need to sanctify the Sabbath (Exod. 16:23; 20:8, 11; 31:14; 35:2; Deut. 5:12; Neh. 9:14; 10:31, 33; 13:22; Isa. 58:13).

At the end of this day there is no refrain like those appended to the other six days. This lack of the refrain is a literary device that sets this day apart and serves to emphasize its holiness.

The first verse of chapter 2 summarizes the previous six days and prepares for the seventh. The completion of God’s work covered heaven and earth and everything in them. The phrase the seventh day occurs three times to denote three activities of God. First, by the seventh day, he had completed his work. Second, on the seventh day he rested—the word can mean to cease, and here denotes cessation from work. Finally, God blessed the seventh day and declared it to be holy because he ceased his work of creation. It is important to note that Genesis mentions God only ceasing creation. God did not cease all work, and his acts of blessing animals (1:22) and humans (1:28) continued. This also plays into the interpretation of the fourth commandment, which we will discuss in three weeks.

What does all this mean?

The creation narrative forms the basis for understanding God’s relationship with his creation and its creatures throughout Genesis. It sets the stage for the monotheistic tone of the rest of the book. One true God. It also demonstrates God’s right to order and direct the affairs of humans, such as his sending the great flood (chs. 7–9), stay tuned for next Sunday’s theme, confusing human languages (11:1–9), striking Pharaoh with plagues (12:17), empowering the aged Sarah to bear a son (21:1–2), building a family for Jacob (29:31–30:24) and giving Joseph the ability to interpret dreams (40:8; 41:16), more on that in three weeks. Moreover, the blessings that God places on animals and humans continue throughout the book: through Noah, God saves all living creatures from the flood, and he shows mercy to all nations through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (18:18; 22:18; 26:4).

Through proper Bible study we know that the Bible is complete. The Old Testament and the New Testament taken individually won’t give us God’s complete perfect plan. The Old Testament gives us the prophecy, while the New Testament fulfills that prophecy. The Old Testament sets the stage in the first act, while the New Testament completes the story is the second act. If we were to walk in on the second act of a play, we wouldn’t understand the story, or the characters, we’d only have half the story. Just as if we left during the intermission, which in the Bible lasted 430 years, we would be left with an unfinished story and a lot of questions.

My mother came from a family of seven children and raised during the Great Depression. One of the few entertainments they enjoyed during the 40’s was going to the Berkley Theatre. One day she and her siblings went to see the film “Gone with the Wind.” When she arrived home, her mother asked why she was home early, she said the lights came on and everyone got up from their seats, so she walked home with her siblings. He mother laughed and said, “That’s the Intermission, go back and finish seeing the rest of the movie!” My mom told me years later that she walked home thinking that Scarlett O’Hara declaring, “I’ll never be hungry again!” was a stupid ending for a movie! She left early and didn’t have the complete story until she went back to watch the second half of the film.

The first chapter of Genesis may just show that there are two parts of creation that complete the story, possibly foreshadowing the two testaments that complete God’s plan. The first three days consist of preparing the earth with light, the waters, and the soil. The next three days prepared the earth for God’s goal of his creation with the luminaries, the fish in the seas and the birds in the air, followed by the land animals, and over them all, Man.

Some Bible scholars study the meanings of the Ancient Hebrew letters, originally pictographs similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics. These letters had meanings behind each pictograph letter. The Ancient Hebrew reveals the Good News of mankind’s Salvation, from the very first Hebrew word of the Bible. בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית BeReShYT which means, in the beginning. The ancient letters have meanings, so with its prefix and roots combined, this is the figurative meaning of the first word in the Hebrew Bible:

בְּ Bet   = Tent, House, Family, Dwelling, Kingdom, In, Inside…

רֵ Resh   = Head, Highest, Supreme, Chief, Most Important, Top…

אAlef    – Ox, Strength, Power, Leader, Number One…

שִׁ֖ Shin   = Teeth, Sharp, Cut, Devour, Crush, to Consume like Fire…

י Yod   = Hand, Work, Deeds, Actions…

ת Tav    = Cross, Sign, Seal, Covenant…

BeRaShYT taken together with the second word BeRa, which itself is the root of the first word, and form repeated words, which in Hebrew emphasize special significance. Scholars deduce that the first Hebrew word of the Bible, based on the meanings of the ancient pictographs might mean:

The Kingdom of the Highest Power, through the cut hand on the cross, will crush the actions through the covenant (of the blood). I’m not sure if this is an accurate interpretation of the Ancient Hebrew, as I’ve only seen this in one of the commentaries, but many scholars believe the first mention of a Messiah is believed to be in Genesis 3:15

And I will Put (שִׁית shyt) enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed. He will crush your head, and you will strike his heel,

So, the interpretation is open for debate, but it seems to me very likely that God would put his entire perfect plan into the very first word of the Bible. In a few weeks we’ll be covering the Ten Commandments, also known as the Ten Words, with each word spoken by God conveying a complex thought and action in a single Holy Word. So, the first word of Genesis containing God’s complete plan is plausible to me.

Another path we don’t have time for this morning is the question, “Were the six days of creation normal days, or millions of years?” I’ll briefly tell you my belief. The Bible tells us the world was created in six days. Jesus’ first public miracle occurred at the Wedding in Cana, when he turned the water into wine. Wine so choice that the master of the feast was impressed with the quality of the wine and began to question why it was held back from the guests so long. This must have been an extremely fine vintage wine to impress the master of the feast so dramatically.

Think how long it normally takes to grow the grapes for many seasons until the crop becomes choice, make the wine and age it so that it becomes fine with age. This was done in an instant. Jesus, as God, created wine instantly that was already aged and mature to a vintage state. Creationists take this one step further believing that God possibly created the world in a mature state. That millions of years of age, though I’m not sure how scientists arrive at their dating of millions of years when carbon doesn’t survive that long. So, following the dating of Genesis, a roughly 6000-year-old earth was created by God in six days, that to some may appear millions of years old. But that’s my interpretation of the dating of the creation. 

We done a deep dive into the creation, exploring what the Bible says. We’ve heard a few interpretations, you may agree with them, or go ahead and study the passage yourself, to form your own conclusions and interpretations. We’ve seen that John’s Gospel agrees with Genesis, that Jesus Christ is present with God the Father always, and together with the Holy Spirit created everything in the universe, the world we live in, all the flora and fauna, every human that has ever lived, everything that has ever existed, or will exist. It’s hard to wrap your head around it, but our human minds will never be able to begin to understand God until we meet him face-to-face.

Many people say that humans are selfish to think that we are the only life in the entire expanse of the universe that there MUST be intelligent life out there somewhere. I, myself, don’t think that humans are selfish, on the contrary, humans are incredibly blessed that our God loves us so much that he not only created us, and the world that we live in, but created the entire universe to work in perfect unison to sustain the possibility of life here on earth. Scientists say that any deviation form the orbit and distance from our Sun, and the planets around us, would cause life to cease and render the planet uninhabitable. Think carefully about this, God loves us so much that he sent Jesus to save us from the penalty of sin, that we as humans rightfully deserve for our rebellious state since Adam and Eve rejected God’s command back in Genesis 3.

The front of your bulletin this week shows a small portion of Michelangelo’s painting in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, called the Creation of Adam. This is cropped to make it family friendly, as Adam reclines on the ground pre-fig leaf status. He has his arm partially outstretched. Across from him, God is fully reaching out to Adam, just as he is continually reaching out fully to each one of us. God is stretching, making every effort to reach Adam, but Adam’s hand is curled, almost pulling back from God. All Adam has to do is BARELY reach his finger out towards God and the two will connect. God is reaching for us, and all we have to do is BARELY move toward him, and he will grasp our hand guiding us along the path he has created for each of us.

So, we have a God that loves us more than we can possibly know, and he is reaching for us constantly, waiting for us to move the smallest amount to his outstretched hand to begin, and grow our relationship with him, he created the entire universe to work perfectly to sustain life on this small planet in the vast unmeasurable expanse of space. And he put us on the one planet in the entire universe that has tacos! That, brothers and sisters, and everything the Bible tells us, is undeniable proof that God is our creator, God is our Lord, and God is our Savior.

He loves us more than we could ever imagine, and this is his story.

In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, Amen.

Benediction:

Today, we’ve taken a look at what the Bible tells us of the Creation. God created the heavens and the earth with just his words. He created everything Ex Nihilo, “Out of Nothing.” He did this all in just six days, and he rested from his creation on the seventh day. He did this all, just to create humanity. He created everything because his love is never ending, and he wants to share his love with each and everyone of us. We were created in his image, an image to create things using the talents that he has given us, an image to live a life that’s pleasing to him, which honors and glorifies him, an image to know what is good, and what is very good. We are created in his image to share the love that he has for us. He reaches out to us endlessly, we simply have to move our finger, even slightly, toward him, and he will take us by the hand and guide us all the days of our lives.

Go in peace and give thanks to the Creator.


[1] K. A. Mathews, Genesis 1-11:26, vol. 1A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996), 113.

[2] Gordon J. Wenham, “Genesis,” in New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, ed. D. A. Carson et al., 4th ed. (Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994), 59.

[3] Andrew E. Steinmann, Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary, ed. David G. Firth, vol. 1, The Tyndale Commentary Series (London: Inter-Varsity Press, 2019), 52.

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